Posts tagged ‘Church and State’

02/25/2012

Founders’ Colleges Were Not Sectarian

Right-wingers like to promote the mythology that everything our Founders did was extremely religious, but the truth is, the colleges they founded, in the 26 states east of the Mississippi, from the birth of Harvard in 1636, through the next 200 years, were largely secular, or public universities, and not faith-based colleges.

Many States had only Secular Schools:

MASSACHUSETTS: Harvard (1636), our oldest university, was founded without religious affiliation. Over the following 200 years, Massachusetts witnessed the opening of four more private colleges: Williams (1793), Amherst (1821), Wheaton (1834), and Mt. Holyoke (1836). The first religious-based school in the Bay State did not appear until 1843, when Holy Cross accepted students.

CONNECTICUT: Yale (1701), a secular Ivy League school, was Connecticut’s only university for 122 years. Trinity (1823) and Wesleyan (1831), both private, were the next to break ground, followed by Central Connecticut (1849), a state school.

NEW YORK: Early New Yorkers introduced Columbia University (1754) to the Ivy League, without religious ties. It was followed by private colleges at Hamilton (1793) and Union (1795). After the U.S. created a public Military Academy (1802) at West Point, four more secular schools appeared: Colgate (1819), Rensselaer Tech (1824), Rochester Tech (1829), and NYU (1831). Not until 79 years after Columbia was first opened, did St. Joseph’s (1833), a religious school, begin taking students.

RHODE ISLAND: Brown (1764), an Ivy League university, was not connected to any church. 90 years after their chartering, the state added a public school named Rhode Island College (1854).

NEW HAMPSHIRE: Dartmouth (1769), another Ivy League college, was not faith-based. It was the state’s only university, until Colby-Sawyer (1833), a private school, appeared 61 years later.

MAINE in the early years had two private schools, Bowdoin (1794) and Colby (1813), and they gained no other, until Bates (1855), a secular university, was added just before the Civil War.

Public Universities founded before Independence:

DELAWARE: Our Delaware forefathers chartered the University of Delaware (1743), as a public institution. It remained the state’s only school of higher education for 98 years, through 1841.

NEW JERSEY: After Princeton (1746) opened, as a private Ivy League institution, the New Jersey Founders started Rutgers (1766), as a state-run college. It would be 90 years before students would be accepted at Seton Hall (1856), a Catholic school.

GEORGIA: Shortly after the Revolution, the Georgian Founders broke ground at the University of Georgia (1785), a public college. 46 years later, Methodists launched a school named La Grange (1831), followed by Baptists at Mercer (1833), private interests at Oglethorpe (1835), and Methodists again at Emory (1836).

Public universities under President Washington:

NORTH CAROLINA: Although the first in North Carolina was a small Moravian women’s school named Salem (1772), during President Washington’s first term, the state created the University of North Carolina (1789), as a public school. Baptists followed with Wake Forest (1834), as the Society of Friends founded Guilford (1834), and the Presbyterians opened Davidson (1836).

VERMONT: As Washington was in his third year, the Founders of Vermont molded the University of Vermont (1791) into a public school. Following appearances by secular Middlebury (1800) and Norwich (1819), Johnson State (1828) was added.

TENNESSEE: During Washington’s second term, the Tennessee legislature appropriated funds for the University of Tennessee (1794), as a public institution. Tuculum (1794), a private school, also took students that year. Sectarian interests finally broke ground at religious-based schools, when the Presbyterians opened Maryville (1819), and the Baptists founded Union (1825).

Public universities under Adams and Jefferson:

KENTUCKY: After private parties opened Transylvania (1780), and Baptists created Georgetown, KY (1787), the Founders of Kentucky voted, during John Adams’ presidency, to start the University of Louisville (1798), as a public institution. Early Kentucky was rounded out with a Catholic school named Nazareth (1814), and a private one called Centre College (1819).

SOUTH CAROLINA started with the private Charleston College (1770) and funded the University of South Carolina (1801), early in Jefferson’s presidency. Baptists added Furman (1826).

OHIO started with a private college named Marietta (1797). It was soon joined in Jefferson’s time, by the Ohio University (1804), a public school. When James Madison was inaugurated, Miami of Ohio (1809), another public college, was chartered. As James Monroe became President, the University of Cincinnati (1819) started as a municipal institution. Kenyon (1824) and Western Reserve (1826), both private, completed early Ohio.

MARYLAND: Two private schools, St. John’s (1696) and Washington (1706), were the first to open. 83 years later, the Catholics introduced Georgetown (1789) in Washington, DC, and St. Mary’s (1791) in Maryland. While Jefferson was still President, the state’s Founders launched the University of Maryland (1807), as a public school. Catholics soon followed with Mt. St. Mary’s (1808), and St. Joseph’s (1809), as other private interests broke ground at the George Washington University (1821), in the District of Columbia.

Public Universities under Madison and Monroe:

MICHIGAN: While James Madison was ending his second term, the University of Michigan (1817) appeared, as a public school. 16 years later, the Baptists first accepted students at Kalamazoo (1833), followed by the Methodists at Albion (1835).

VIRGINIA: A royal charter established William & Mary (1693), as a secular college. Washington & Lee (1749) followed, as a private institution. 83 years after William & Mary was first opened, the Presbyterians organized a religious-based school at Hampden-Sydney (1776). During James Monroe’s first term, Virginia appropriated funds for a ground-breaking at the University of Virginia (1819), a public school. Methodists next opened Randolph-Macon (1830), as Baptists gave birth to Richmond (1830).

ALABAMA: While James Monroe was still President, the Alabama legislature funded the University of Alabama (1820), as a public school. Northern Alabama (1830) followed, as Methodists launched colleges at Athens (1822) and Livingston (1835), and Catholics created one named Spring Hill (1830).

INDIANA: The Founders of Indiana organized the University of Indiana (1820) while James Monroe was still President. After Presbyterians introduced Hanover (1827), private interests started Wabash (1832), and Baptists accepted students at Franklin (1834).

Public universities under Van Buren, Tyler, Polk, and Fillmore:

WEST VIRGINIA remained a part of Virginia, until the Civil War. They had just two colleges before the split, namely Marshall (1837), and West Liberty (1837), both public institutions, which were chartered, while President Van Buren was in office.

MISSISSIPPI, a conservative place, started with Mississippi College (1826), a Baptist institution, before the state agreed in John Tyler’s time, to fund the University of Mississippi (1944).

WISCONSIN: Upon joining the union during the Presidency of James Polk, the Wisconsin Founders broke ground on a publicly-funded school named the University of Wisconsin (1848). Carroll College (1846), a Presbyterian school, also organized then, along with two private universities, Beloit (1846) and Lawrence (1847).

FLORIDA: The first universities in Florida, launched during the Presidency of Millard Fillmore, were Florida State (1851), and the University of Florida (1853), both public institutions.

Some had private and sectarian schools:

PENNSYLVANIA: The secular University of Pennsylvania (1740) appeared as a member of the Ivy League. Although a religious order founded Moravian (1742), the next four to break ground were private: Dickinson (1773), Washington & Jefferson (1782), Franklin & Marshall (1787), and the University of Pittsburgh (1787). Lyconing (1812), a Methodist college, was followed by three secular schools: Allegheny (1815), Pennsylvania Military (1821), and the Philadelphia Pharmacy College (1821). While the Presbyterians added Lafayette (1826), Lutherans opened Gettysburg (1832). Haverford (1833) became a private school. Public colleges were not chartered, until Cheney State (1837) and Bloomsburg State (1839) appeared.

ILLINOIS commenced with McKendree (1828), a Methodist school. They next added Illinois College (1829) and Knox (1837), both private. Four more secular colleges and six sectarian would follow, before Illinois St. (1857) would first break ground.

As the evidence clearly shows, the Founders supported secular colleges, and actually appropriated funds to create public non-sectarian universities. While some may have had religious beliefs, they were careful to separate church and state.

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09/27/2011

Republican Debate Orlando (9-22-11)

The Republicans had another debate on Sep. 22, 2011 in Orlando.

FOREIGN POLICY: After 10 years of war, Huntsman said it is time to bring troops home and to project America’s goodness. He said only Afghanistan can save Afghanistan, and only Pakistan can save Pakistan. Romney believes it is wrong to criticize Israel for illegally constructing settlements in occupied Palestine. He thought it is unacceptable for Iran to become a nuclear power. Santorum, also pandered to the Israeli Lobby, saying he would not remove any troops from the Iraqi region, as he wants to fight to win, and would stay until we succeed. He wants better relations with Pakistan to ensure nuclear weapons do not fall into the wrong hands. Perry would use India as an ally to deal with Pakistan. Gingrich predicted Pakistan will become more dangerous in near future. He would eliminate government to government foreign aid, and would deny money to any state that does not vote with the U.S. in the UN. Cain was against the Palestinians, but did not explain why. He said if you mess with Israel, you mess with the U.S. While Johnson would promote trade by allowing direct flights to Cuba, Bachmann opposes them, because she thinks Cuba is still a state sponsor of terror.

GAYS IN MILITARY: Santorum would reinstitute don’t ask don’t tell in the military, saying they should keep it to themselves, and sexual activity has no place in the service.

JOBS: Ron Paul said jobs are created by people, not governments. Santorum’s job solution is to abolish public sector unions. Perry would create jobs through energy independence and the repeal of regulations. Huntsman said the 15 million unemployed need tax, regulatory, and energy reforms. Bachmann thought employers are not hiring because of Obamacare. Johnson neighbors’ two dogs created more shovel-ready jobs than Obama. Cain said we just need leadership. Romney, a conservative businessman, quipped: to create jobs, you have to have had one. Gingrich said the economy will turn around when Obama loses. He would require unemployment recipients to go through state training programs to qualify for benefits, saying it is wrong to give money for nothing.

U.S. BUDGET & TAXES: Huntsman said this is the worst time to raise taxes, and would instead eliminate corporate welfare and phase out loopholes. Johnson would stop spending $10 for every $6 we raise, and would balance the budget. He would cut 43% of the federal budget, including 43% of military spending. Romney, clearly out of touch, thought he would help the Middle Class by eliminating taxes on interest, dividends, and capital gains. The unrealistic Bachmann first said we should get to keep every dollar we earn, but later said money is needed to run the government. The untested Cain would throw out the entire tax code, including employer matching Social Security, and would create a 9-9-9 plan, including a new regressive 9% federal sales tax, a 9% corporate tax, and flat 9% income tax.

ENERGY: Huntsman wants to develop natural gas, because we cannot use wind or sun right now. Cain claimed the EPA is regulating dust and so he would eliminate the agency.

IMMIGRATION: Perry spent more time on immigration than anyone, he said, as Texas has a 1,200 mile border. He wants to stop illegal immigration, but said a 1,200 mile wall is not going to work. He joined the AZ lawsuit, but gave in-state tuition to illegal aliens. Fellow Texan Ron Paul would give illegal aliens nothing. Santorum said Perry is soft on immigration, and illegals should be treated like any other out-of-state person. Romney criticized Perry for giving in-state tuition to illegals, saying it draws them into the country. He would crack down on employers who hire illegals. Gingrich wants secure borders, English language education, and a modernization of visas. He wants to know what employers object to regarding the verification of Social Security numbers.

SOCIAL SECURITY: Romney said Perry does not want Social Security to be federal. Romney would make the current system sound. Cain wants to fix SS by using the Chilean model.

HEALTH CARE: Romney adopted the Mass. health care mandate to deal with the 8% in his state who were uninsured. He said the federal law is not the same, and wants states to have waivers. Huntsman said the health care approach is wrong, since we need affordable health insurance to reduce the number of uninsured. He would let the states experiment. Perry was asked why 25% are uninsured in Texas and it ranked 49th in Medicaid. Each state, Perry said, should deliver their own health care. He disagreed with President Bush for establishing Medicare Part D and called Romney’s state plan the same as Obama’s. Bachmann attacked Perry for surrendering parental rights to the drug companies and mandating injections to 12-year-olds. Cain thinks he survived cancer, because he was not on a bureaucrat timetable.

CHURCH & STATE: Bachmann correctly said Jefferson valued religious liberty and we should not have a state or national church. This does not mean we are not people of faith. She said we should be able to exercise our faith, but failed to say who was denying it.

STATES RIGHTS: Ron Paul said the federal government has no authority to run schools, the economy, or our personal lives, and he would veto all bills that violate the 10th Amendment.

EDUCATION: Ron Paul wants the feds out of education, saying nobody likes No Child Left Behind. Johnson said 11% of federal spending goes to education with strings attached, which he would cut. Huntsman thinks early childhood literacy is important, but wants education local, with no unfunded mandates. Bachmann and Cain want local control, and would get the Feds out. Perry supports school choice, a local issue. Romney would stand up to teacher unions, another local issue. Gingrich would add Pell grants for K-12, but would get rid of federal regulations.

ABORTION: Ron Paul said abortion is a state, not a national issue. He asked how they could police the day-after pill, since such laws are not going to solve the problem.

TORT REFORM: Perry raised another state issue by warning trial lawyers not to file frivolous lawsuits in his state.

VICE PRESIDENT: When asked who on stage would be their Vice-President, Romney was typically vague, saying anyone could serve. Bachmann wanted a strong constitutional conservative. Gingrich would pick someone capable. Ron Paul would choose once he reaches the top tier. Johnson would pick Ron Paul due to monetary issues. Huntsman surprised reasonable people by picking Cain, who has no government experience. Perry wants a cross between Cain and Gingrich. Cain would pick Romney or Gingrich. Santorum would choose Gingrich.

08/16/2011

Bachmann & God’s Plan: Deny Liberty

Minnesota Congresswoman Michelle Bachmann, former Sen. Rick Santorum, and other Republicans at the Iowa Straw Poll this past weekend, showed their willingness to impose fundamentalist religious beliefs on all Americans, as they advocated social policies outlawing abortion, gay marriage, and other freedoms.

At the Straw Poll were: 2 Evangelical Lutherans, Bachmann and Pawlenty, 2 Mormons, Romney and Huntsman, 2 Baptists, Paul and Cain, and 2 conservative Catholics, Gingrich and Santorum.

In the 1960 presidential race, Democrat John Kennedy, a left-of-center Catholic, made every effort to separate church and state, by distancing his personal religious views from the public policies he advocated. He made no effort, while campaigning, or as president, to convert his religious beliefs into federal law. He understood the 1st Amendment ban against the establishment of religion.

In the 2012 campaign, Republicans like Bachmann, Santorum, and others, do not understand the letter, spirit, or intent of the Constitution. They don’t appreciate the secular nature of the American system. If they gained control, they would establish a Christian Nation, by imposing their religious views on us all.

Instead of embracing the secular right to liberty found in the 5th and 14th Amendments, which allows women in the first trimester of their pregnancies to have an abortion, Bachmann would instead implement her non-negotiable religious convictions, which were solidified for her at the Oral Roberts Law School. She believes the termination of a fetus is the same as murder, and wants to force all Americans to live under the rules established by her church.

While former Penn. Sen. Santorum correctly described Bachmann as one who demands everything, and compromises nothing, he too harbors uncompromising views derived from his conservative Catholic beliefs, as he promised to criminally prosecute all doctors who perform abortions, even though it is legal to do so.

Bachmann pledged not to nominate activist judges, but what she meant to say was she would not name any liberal activists. She certainly intends to nominate right-wing activists, like Supreme Court Justices Scalia, Thomas, Alito and Roberts, who share her views. She apparently does not realize that the conservatives on the court are just as active in shaping the law, as some liberals.

As to the issue of marriage, Bachmann was asked to explain a comment she once made that wives should be submissive to their husbands. She instead dodged the question, saying submission meant respect, an entirely new definition, not in any dictionary.

Although laws as to marriage and divorce have always been made at the state level, Santorum wants to throw out the 10th Amendment, and govern all families from Wash. DC. He disapproves of states’ rights on this and would rather dictate his religious dogma nationally. He was proud of his efforts in Iowa, where he helped defeat state justices, who found illegal the ban on gay marriage.

Romney joined Santorum in his ill-conceived idea to govern marriage from Washington. He wants the Constitution amended, so marriages are limited to just one man and one woman.

Huntsman, the only reasonable Republican as to social issues, said civil unions are acceptable. He warned the Republican audience that they need to do a better job on equality. Perhaps what the Republicans should do is start listening to Huntsman, and stop hearing voices from God.